Angvstia (or Angustia) is the scientific journal of the National Museum of Eastern Carpathians, first published in the year 1996.
Angvstia (or Angustia) aims to foster the publication of high-quality articles and reviews concerning topics related to East- and Southeast-European archaeology and history. We will promote a critical approach towards archaeological and historical sources, going against certain enduring and entrenched myths and stereotypes. We specifically welcome archaeological reports for which we provide full colour plates printing.
The journal has one issue per year. It appears in Romanian with English abstract, full English or German languages, on paper and online. The journal uses a peer-review system. The readers have free access to the pdf version ready to download.


ROAD – Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources
CEEOL - Central and Eastern European Online Library
DOI - Digital Object Identifier
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Manuscript Submission
All manuscripts submitted to our journal must be original research and must meet our guidelines with respect to scope. The articles will be published just after rigorous peer review, anonymous refereeing by independent expert referees, members of editorial board and revision by article authors when required.
The manuscripts will follow the norms and guidelines of the Chicago Manual of Style.
The texts submitted for publication in Angustia shall be written in Romanian or a language of international circulation in academia (English, French, German).
The submitted text should include the full name of the author, her/his institutional affiliation, the current mailing address and e-mail. The submitted texts shall include a short English abstract (300-350 words) and the main keywords (5-8 words) in English. The submitted manuscripts that include figures or illustrations should be accompanied by a complete list of illustrations, indicating the source or the author of the image. The list of illustrations should be translated into the same foreign language as the summary (i.e., English). The illustrations or figures shall be submitted in the appropriate electronic format (i.e. , jpg. 300 dpi resolution for images and 1200 dpi for drawings).

Latest issue 24 (2020)


Aspects of a Bandkeramik settlement near Olteni in Transylvania

Authors: Maciej DĘBIEC, Thomas SAILE, Dan BUZEA


Excavations in the Bandkeramik settlement of Olteni, located on the right bank of the Olt River in Transylvania, brought to light the fragmented remains of at least two ground plans of longhouses from the Early Neolithic. These are the first convincing evidence of those structures in Romania. The site can be dated to a later Notenkopf-Phase, and several sieves were discovered among the pottery remains. In addition, the investigations revealed several fragments of anthropomorphic and zoomorphic representations. The torso of a presumed pregnant woman deserves special attention.

The following paper lists the main results of the archaeological excavations carried out in 1988, in the settlement at Păhărniceni „Petruca” (Orhei region, Republic of Moldavia). Three archaeological trenches were opened, covering a total surface of 850 m2. The discovered archaeological remains belong to all the cultural horizons characterising the central area of the Prut-Dniester space, since Eneolithic to late Medieval Period. The excavations revealed the vestiges of 29 constructions, 124 inventory items, 13492 pottery fragments, 1400 burnt adobe fragments, 261 iron ore pieces (6,496 kg), 201 fragments of iron slag (28,420 kg), 2914 animal bones, 31 shells, 2448 stones and 26 fragments of flints. The identified features belong to: Noua culture (15th-13th c. BC) – 1 domestic pit (no. 23); ChișinăuCorlăteni culture (12th–9th c. BC) – 1 surface dwelling (no. 22) and 5 domestic pits (no. 17-21, 28); PoieneștiLucaseuca culture (end of 3rd-1st c. BC) – 3 domestic pits (no. 15-16, 20); early Medieval (5th-7th c. AD) – 2 dugouts (no. 32, 44), 2 delimitation ditches (no. 36-37), a surface dwelling with a stone oven (no. 26); early Medieval (8th-9th c. AD) – 2 dwellings (no. 25, 33) with surface auxiliaries (post holes 39, 40-42), 1 domestic pit (no. 43); early Medieval (10th-11th c.) – 2 dwellings (no. 30-31), 2 stone fireplaces (no. 27, 34), 1 furnace (no. 29), 1 domestic pit (no. 38); early Medieval (12th-14th c.) – a dwelling (no. 31); late Medieval (15th- 16th c.) – 1 domestic pit (no. 35). Among the inventory items 24 belong to Cucuteni-Tripolie culture, 1 to Noua, 1 to Chișinău-Corlăteni, 4 to Poienești-Lucaseuca, 2 to 6th-7th c. AD and 94 items to the 10th-14th centuries. The discovered pottery can be assigned to: Cucuteni-Tripolie (4th millenium BC) – 776 fragments (5,5%); the culture with pottery decorated with many belts (18th-17th c. BC) – 142 fragments (1,0%); Noua culture – 470 fragments (3,4%), Chișinău-Corlăteni (12th–9th c. BC) – 1282 fragments (9,2%); Poienești-Lucașeuca culture (2nd-1st c. BC.) – 155 fragments (1,1%); generally Bronze Age – Early Iron Age – 1760 fragments (12,6%); Sântana de Mureș-Cerneahov – 38 fragments (0,2%); 5th-9th c. AD – 1497 fragments (10,7%); 10th-14th c. AD – 5900 fragments (42,5%); Golden Hoard (14th c. AD) – 4 fragments (0,1%); 15th-16th c. AD – 1849 fragments (13,2%); Byzantine amphorae (10th-14th c. AD) – 79 fragments (0,6%).
In 1994, within the village Nichiteni, commune Coțușca (Botoșani county), an onix cameo engraved with the image of Gorgo Medusa was discovered. Based on stylistic details and analogies, it can be framed chronologically in the period of the 3rd century AD, being certainly a product of the workshops of the Roman Empire, which operated during this period. From a stylistic point of view, the object belongs to type II and to Popović variant 3 in the typology dedicated to this class of intaglios. It is currently in the deposits of the Botoșani County Museum.
The investigation of the Roman military site at Énlaka/Inlaceni goes back to one and a half century. Following the full geophysical investigation of the fort and the bigger part of the vicus at Inlaceni/Énlaka in 2016 the excavation could be started in 2019 on the basis of a five years’ research plan of the fort. This year the eastern wall and the area of the south gate could be excavated. It could be proved that the preliminary evaluation of the geophysical investigation needs a correction. The outer line proved to be a runoff ditch, the inner line the via sagularis of the stone fort. Only the middle, maybe double stone line could be interpreted as wall of the fort. They are the earlier and later phase of the stone fort. In lack of datable finds they could be erected in the middle and in the second half of the 2nd century AD.
The magnetometric survey of Roman period site ‘Fântâna Seacă’ (Slava Rusă, Tulcea County)

Authors: Alexandru POPA, Sergiu MUSTEAŢĂ, Mihaela IACOB, Ștefan HONCU, Lucian MUNTEANU

Previous field research at the „Fântâna Seacă” site, in the territory of the ancient city of Ibida, led to the discovery of a Roman settlement. Over the years, systematic archaeological excavations have been carried out, which are currently accompanied by geophysical research. Through the scientific approach presented in this research report, we aimed to highlight the structure of the site, using the magnetometric method. Judging by the identified magnetic anomalies, we can talk about an important number of archaeological complexes arranged in different researched areas of the settlement. Within these measurements, the site boundaries could not be observed.
The article opens a series of reports detailing the results of an extensive multi-annual archaeological survey grounded on a large-scaled airborne LiDAR analysis carried on in a heavily forested mountainous archaeological landscape characterized by spectacular volcanic relief. The studied area, the Olt Gorge between Augustin and Mateiaș, in the county of Brașov, represents one of the key access gates into the Transylvanian basin, if coming from the east. It is particularly relevant for the Bronze and Iron Ages periods, when the picturesque high peaks bordering the Olt river were repeatedly occupied and fortified. During the late Iron Age, the southern section of the gorge developed in a complex ensemble of sites bearing a monumental character. The agglomeration of large buildings, some with a certain cultic purpose, discovered on Tipia Ormenișului, is the second largest after the well-known capital of the Dacian Kingdom, Sarmizegetusa Regia. The airborne LiDAR survey evidenced a variety of anomalies: morphologic, geologic and anthropic, attesting the long-durée human impact on the relief. After initial mapping and LiDAR data analysis, relevant instances of the identified categories of anomalies were tested in the field with trial trenches and supplementary documented with a portable 3D LiDAR scanner, for increased resolution. The current article details further the research results concerning one category of anomalies which is the most wide-spread in the analysed region – the remains of lime-kilns and their associated modified landscape through quarrying and transport roads. More than 70 lime kilns were mapped in the forests covering both sides of the Olt river, usually organized in batteries. One kiln was excavated, and samples of wood were collected for radiocarbon dating. The complex and widespread vestiges, previously hidden in the forest, attest the intense mining and quick-lime production activities organized at the level of families coming from the neighbouring villages. The traditional geologic knowledge of the area of the people involved in the lime production was extraordinary, considering the localisation of the insular lime sources amidst a dominant surrounding volcanic relief.

History andEthnographyStudies

The current article addresses the issue of Romanian confessional education in a community in Covasna locality, Treiscaune County, selected according to certain criteria, prevailing the specifics of the occupation of the majority of the Romanian population, their material condition and the impact on school population. The period to which it refers, the second half of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century, is distinguished by the complexity of the problems generated by the major events that took place at the macrosocial level with impact on multiple levels, including education. This is an area in which the changes that have taken place, on several occasions, at the level of legislation have brought great challenges for communities and churches in order to maintain denominational education, which is vital for education in the mother tongue. Starting from the fact that the demographic evolution of the ethnic and confessional element imprints the evolution of the school system at a certain moment in a determined space, an analysis of this problem was considered, highlighting the significant population growth in the period 1850-1810 with the preservation of the ethnic structure, the majority being the Hungarian ethnic population followed by the Romanian ethnic population. The existence of the confessional school was conditioned by the number of school-age population. The evolution of the school population was analysed, highlighting the problems related to attendance and the causes of absenteeism. The biggest challenges for denominational education were those related to the condition of the school building, facilities, teachers, their qualification and salary. In order to see the response of the church, of the local communities and of all those involved in the education process to these challenges, we focused on these aspects, namely on the situation of the school’s movable and immovable property, teachers’ salaries, qualification and improvement. And because one of the important criteria for evaluating the teaching work carried out by teachers with students during a school year was the result obtained by them at the final exam of a school year, it was also considered how the school year was structured and completed.
The collection of documents concerning to the Romanian confessional education from Three Chairs Counties, belonging to National Museum of Eastern Carpathians historical-documentary heritage, formed of over 1200 documents, most of them from 1887-1915 period, contain information about number of students and the situation of schools buildings, movable and immovable assets of some schools, the construction, the repairing and the maintenance of schools buildings, the beginning of school year, text-books, auxiliary support, exams, teachers etc., constituting a rich source of documentation for those interested in the situation of Romanian confessional education from this area from the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century.
The ethnographic heritage collection of the National Museum of Eastern Carpathians includes 207 traditional costume pieces which illustrate the particularities of both woman and man traditional costume from Voșlăbeni, Harghita County, through composition, the materials used, chromatics, working techniques and motifs. The women’s traditional costume underwent changes, such us, in the first half of the twentieth century, two types of costume were simultaneously used: one similar to the Moldavian set that includes embroidered blouse with ‘altiţă’ and the other – a combination of the Transylvanian embroidered blouse with ‘fodori’ and the Moldavian skirt decoration ‘catrinţă’. The men’s traditional costume had a simpler composition, the shirt being the essential element.

Prezentăride carteBook Reviews

Issue 23 (2019)

Research carried out at Băile Figa during 2016-2019 – Revealing the potential of a hybrid saltscape
Authors: Valerii KAVRUK, Dan Lucian BUZEA, József PUSKAS, Dan ȘTEFAN, Maria-Magdalena ȘTEFAN, Anthony HARDING, Marius ALEXIANU, Cătălin ROIBU, Radu ZĂGREANU
The article presents the preliminary results of the interdisciplinary research (geological and geospatial studies, archaeological excavations, salt production experiments, and ethnographic survey) carried out during 2016-2019, in the site and hybrid saltscape of Băile Figa, well known for its remarkable environmental, ancient and current salt exploitation evidence. Besides, the article aims to evaluate the contribution of the recent research to a better understanding of the environmental context of the site and ancient salt production technology in the Inner Carpathian region. Also, it focuses on the hybrid character of the site and its potential to the transdisciplinary and holistic study.
The study details the anthropological analyses of 14 archaeological cases in which entire or partial human skeletons were found in the Bronze Age site of Păuleni-Ciuc, Ciomortan (Harghita county) during the excavation campaigns 2000-2002, 2007, 2009 and 2011. Two collective deposits, a ritual pit, two dwellings and other findings delivered a total of 22 individuals,  among which 8 were aged seven or less.

The author presents the anthropomorphic statuettes (Plates I-III) that were discovered in the areas of the Otomani and Wietenberg cultures in northwestern Transylvania (Fig. 1). These Middle Bronze Age statuettes have one characteristic in common, namely the complete or almost complete absence (if we consider the uncertain piece by Carei-Bobald) of decoration. This feature distinguishes them from some statuettes of this type from the Hungarian and Slovak regions of the Otomani (or Otomani-Füzesabony) culture, the decoration of which consists mainly of pierced points. The statuettes of the Otomani culture in northwestern Transylvania, however, are similar to those from the distribution areas of the Wietenberg and Tei cultures, which are also undecorated.

Turia (Hungarian: Torja) parish is located in south-eastern Transylvania, at the foot of the Bodoc Mountains. Currently, three Late Bronze Age hoards are known as originating from the territory of the village; they cover the Br D-Ha B2 periods. The present paper deals with the first hoard, discovered in uncertain conditions, and donated to the museum from Cluj-Napoca by the local nobleman Apor Károly, in 1864. In the present state of research the hoard is considered as composed of three socketed axes and a sword with disc pommel (Schalenknaufschwert), dated to the Ha A2 period of the eponymous Turia-Jupalnic horizon. The recently discovered donation letter from the National Archives from Sfântu Gheorghe shed new light on the possible composition of the hoard.

New investigations in the fortifications from Teliu, Brașov County
Authors: Maria-Magdalena ȘTEFAN, Dan ȘTEFAN, Dan Lucian BUZEA

Two fortified sites were known in the vicinity of Teliu (Kreuzburg/Nyén/Keresztvár), Brașov county, since the 19th c. They were reported as located in close proximity one to another (200 m), at the foothills of Buzău Mountains - now covered in evergreen forests. Despite a long-time interest in them, including a series of excavations made during the 1960s and 1970s in Cetatea Mare (I), their full chronological attribution and function remained partially disputed. Following a series of works related to the building of a railway route along Teliu valley, during the interwar period, a stone quarry was opened right on top of Cetatea Mică (II), leading in time to its disappearance. A notorious connection with the Teuton early 13th c. fort of Cruceburg has been often explored in relation with these sites.

A settlement and a necropolis from the 4th-3rd centuries BC, with typical North-Thracian materials, were discovered at Olteni – Cariera de Nisip/The Sand Quarry in northern Covasna county. The few animal remains analysed in the present study were found in 3 pits of this settlement. The faunal material is not necessary very representative but completes the picture of the already published archaeological and anthropological reports concerning the assemble of discoveries at Olteni which depict a local North-Thracian community in all its life aspects, funerary and domestic.